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Terms in Technical Dictionary

Terms and Descriptions related to computer or information technology.

3

  • 3D Modeling

    In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of object (either inanimate or living) via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The model can also be physically created using 3D Printing devices.

    Models may be created automatically or manually. The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting.

A

  • Administration (1)

    To maintain or create services that involve the functioning of a server or website.

  • Adware (1)

    Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it, or while the application is being used. Some types of adware are also spyware and can be classified as privacy-invasive software.

  • Anti-Virus Software (2)

    Computer Code that detects virus programs or code before they can infect a computer system.

B

  • Backdoor (3)

    In computer security, a backdoor in a computer system (or cryptosystem or algorithm) is a method of bypassing normal authentication, securing remote access to a computer, obtaining access to plaintext, and so on, while attempting to remain undetected. The backdoor may take the form of an installed program (e.g., Back Orifice), or could be a modification to an existing program or hardware device.

  • Backup (5)

    To duplicate a set of data and hopefully store it in another location for safe keeping.

  • Bandwidth (2)

    In computer networking, bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth, digital bandwidth, or internet bandwidth is a measurement of an avaible or cosumed data communication channel in bits per second.

    For internet connections your ISP allots you a certain amount of upload and download bandwith. If you reach that capaicity using one data transfer method, other methods suffer while that connection stream is in process.

C

  • CGI Animation

    Computer animation (or CGI animation) is the art of creating moving images with the use of computers. It is a subfield of computer graphics and animation. Increasingly it is created by means of 3D computer graphics, though 2D computer graphics are still widely used for stylistic, low bandwidth, and faster real-time rendering needs. Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes the target is another medium, such as film. It is also referred to as CGI (computer-generated imagery or computer-generated imaging), especially when used in films.

  • Cable (2)

    Cable television is a system of providing television to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in traditional television broadcasting (via radio waves) in which a television antenna is required. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephony and similar non television services may also be provided.

  • Clickjacking

    Clickjacking is a technique used with malicious intent to try and trick a person by crafting a title or a URL to make it look like the destination is a trusted source. If the victim is tricked into believing the source is legitimate and the link is clicked the person is taken to a website or destination that may attempt to use other methods to install software or run code on the computer to compromise its security.

  • Computer Security (3)

    Computer Security is a method or list of methods that could involve knowledge, watchful behavior, or software to protect your computer from threats over a network or on the internet.

  • Crash (5)

    The Computer is malfunctioning in such a way as to cause the system to stop functional altogether.

  • Customizing (5)

    The building of hardware compoents into a new computer tailored to a specific need.

D

  • DNS (1)

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, www.example.com translates to 192.0.32.10.

  • DSL (3)

    DSL or xDSL, is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, although in recent years, the term digital subscriber line has been widely adopted as a more marketing-friendly term for ADSL, which is the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL. DSL uses high frequency, while regular telephone uses low frequency on the same telephone line.

  • Data Archiving (3)

    Providing long term digital storage for important data using a computer, software and a storage device.

  • Data Reconstruction (2)

    To reconstruct lost or deleted data from a storage medium allowing the discovery of the authors identity, or for restoral purposes.

  • Data Storage (9)

    Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time. Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information retention. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor), implements the basic computer model used since the 1940s.

  • Data Transfer (3)

    To copy one set of data from one device to another.

  • Database Administrator

    A database administrator (DBA) is a person responsible for the design, implementation, maintenance and repair of an organization's database. They are also known by the titles Database Coordinator or Database Programmer, and is closely related to the Database Analyst, Database Modeler, Programmer Analyst, and Systems Manager. The role includes the development and design of database strategies, monitoring and improving database performance and capacity, and planning for future expansion requirements. They may also plan, co-ordinate and implement security measures to safeguard the database.

  • Detection (4)

    To detect a operation on a Computer System that would otherwise go unnoticed.

  • Diagnosis (7)

    Diagnosis (Greek: ????????, from ??? dia- "apart-split", and ????? gnosi "to learn, knowledge") is the identification of the nature of anything, either by process of elimination or other analytical methods. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines, with slightly different implementations on the application of logic and experience to determine the cause and effect relationships. Below are given as examples and tools used by the respective professions in medicine, science, engineering, business. Diagnosis also is used in many other trades and professions to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations for problems, or solutions to issues.

  • Digital Recording

    Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by a process of digitization, allowing it to be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate so fast that the human ear perceives the result as continuous sound. Digital recordings are considered higher quality than analog recordings not necessarily because they have higher fidelity (wider frequency response or dynamic range), but because the digital format can prevent much loss of quality found in analog recording due to noise and electromagnetic interference in playback, and mechanical deterioration or damage to the storage medium. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is applied to a loudspeaker or earphones.

  • Distaster Recovery (4)

    Having a backup system in place to recover your data in the event of a system crash.

  • Document Access Locking (1)

    Prevents users from accessing a document unless that user has appropiate permissions to access it.

  • Document Expiration Dating (1)

    Set a Document's access or visibility to expire after a certain date.

  • Document Management System (1)

    A Document Management System is a system to track and store electornic documents.

  • Document Revisioning (1)

    Create and upload new revisions to a previous document replacing the old one.

  • Document Update Notifications (1)

    receive a reminder if a document gets updated.

  • Domain Name

    When used in the context of the internet, a Domain Name is a name that matches a location on the internet, such as google.com. Anyone that registers a Domain Name with a DNS provider can have their own website or email address associated with a register domain name. Domain Names have a one time fee between $5.00 and $30.00 a year depending on the service.

E

  • Email (4)

    E-Mail short for Electronic mail. its a method to send and receive mail messages over a network or internet.

  • Error (8)

    A message that a Computer might display informing the user of a malfunction.

F

  • Failure (2)

    Failures in Computer Terms means a device in the computer has stopped function due to wear-and-tear or faulty compoents.

  • File Gallery (For Wordpress)

    "File Gallery" extends WordPress' media (attachments) capabilities by adding a new gallery shortcode handler with templating support, a new interface for attachment handling when editing posts, and much more...

  • File System

    A File System is a method technology uses to store electronic data, usually used for storage devices such as a hard drive or recordable media.

  • Firewall (5)

    A Firewall is a device or software package that protects a computer or network from unwanted or malious activity, while allowing access to parts of the computer or network that is termed safe.

  • Forensics (1)

    Computer forensics is a branch of forensic science pertaining to legal evidence found in computers and digital storage mediums.Computer forensics adheres to standards of evidence admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics experts investigate data storage devices, (such as hard drives, USB Drives, CD-ROMs, floppy disks, tape drives, etc.), identifying, preserving, and then analyzing sources of documentary or other digital evidence.

G

  • Graphics

    Graphics (from Greek ???????? graphia) are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style.

H

  • Hardware (15)

    Hardware in computer terms is any physical component that makes up the operation of a computer.

I

  • IDS (4)

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) generally detects unwanted manipulations of computer systems, mainly through the Internet. The manipulations may take the form of attacks by crackers.An intrusion detection system is used to detect several types of malicious behaviors that can compromise the security and trust of a computer system. This includes network attacks against vulnerable services, data driven attacks on applications, host based attacks such as privilege escalation, unauthorized logins and access to sensitive files, and malware (viruses, trojan horses, and worms).An IDS is composed of several components: Sensors which generate security events, a Console to monitor events and alerts and control the sensors, and a central Engine that records events logged by the sensors in a database and uses a system of rules to generate alerts from security events received. There are several ways to categorize an IDS depending on the type and location of the sensors and the methodology used by the engine to g

  • Instability (10)

    A computer's hardware or software is not functioning correctly all of the time.

  • Installation (12)

    Adding a new software package or hardware device to a computer running any operating system.

  • Instant Messaging

    Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared software clients. The user's text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling.

  • Internet (6)

    The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

  • Intruder (3)

    A person or computer that attempts to gain access into a security system or computer network.

  • Investigation (4)

    To analyze a situation where a computer crime has occurred.

L

  • LAN (5)

    LAN: Local Area NetworkA local-area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings e.g. a school. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs), include their much higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

  • Layout

    Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement and style treatment of elements (content) on a page.

M

  • Maintenance (4)

    Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) involves fixing any sort of hardware device or software operation should it become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled or casualty maintenance). It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device or software in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). MRO may be defined as, "All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions."

  • Malware (8)

    Malware is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owner''s informed consent. The term is a portmanteau of the words malicious and software. The expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or program code.

  • Mapped Drive

    A Mapped Drive is a drive local drive letter (A though Z) that is associated with another storage location on another computer or network. After a drive has been mapped, a software application on a client's computer can read and write files from the shared storage area by accessing that drive, just as if that drive represented a local physical hard disk drive.

  • Media

    A device or disk used to store data.

  • Motion Graphics

    Motion graphics are graphics that use video and/or animation technology to create the illusion of motion or a transforming appearance. These motion graphics are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology, but may be displayed via manual powered technology (e.g. thaumatrope, phenakistoscope, stroboscope, zoetrope, praxinoscope, flip book) as well. The term is useful for distinguishing still graphics from graphics with a transforming appearance over time without over-specifying the form.

N

  • NAND Flash Memory

    NAND Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. NAND chips exist in most USB flash drives for storing data.

  • Network (10)

    A Computer Network allows two or more computers to communicate.

  • Network Attached Storage (NAS) (2)

    A Network Attached Storage device is a appliance that is pluggged into a network to provide storage space.

O

  • OS (11)

    An operating system (OS) is the software on a computer that manages the way different programs use its hardware, and regulates the ways that a user controls the computer.

P

  • Partition (1)

    A partition is a storage container that the operating system uses to access data on a phyical disk. Seperating data between multipule partitions prevents total data loss when partition damage occurs which can be isolated to one partition at a time.

  • Performance (12)

    The operating speed of a computer. Operating speeds can fluctuate, depending on a number of variables.

  • Plugin

    In computing, a plug-in is a set of software components that adds specific capabilities to a larger software application. If supported, plug-ins enable customizing the functionality of an application. For example, plug-ins are commonly used in web browsers to play video, scan for viruses, and display new file types. The image on the right is a screenshot of common Firefox web browser plug-ins. The Adobe Acrobat, QuickTime, and Microsoft Office 2007 plug-ins add the capability to display new file types inside the Firefox web browser.

    Add-on is often considered the general term comprising snap-ins, plug-ins, extensions, and themes.

  • Primary Partition

    A primary partition is reconzied as the first partition on the disk that boots the operating system.

  • Protection (12)

    Some form of safety solution to prevent harm to a computer system.

R

  • Recovery (9)

    To return a Computer System or its Data to its original state before the loss or crash occurred.

  • Recovery Partition

    A recovery patition is a storage container for the system specific opearting system installation files. When a system goes down or the systems' opeartins system is unrecoverable the recovery partition allows you to reinstall the system partiion from the factory defaults.

  • Remote desktop (1)

    In computing, the term remote desktop refers to a software or an OS feature allowing applications, often including graphical applications, to be run remotely on a server, while being displayed locally. Remote desktop applications have varying features. Some allow attaching to an existing user's session (i.e. a running desktop) and "remote controlling" it in front of the user's eyes. Taking over a desktop remotely is a form of remote administration.

  • Removal (3)

    To remove a hardware device or piece of software from a computer.

  • Repair (11)

    The act of repairing a problem with the hardware or software of a computer.

  • Resolution (12)

    To resolve a issue that was detected though trouble-shooting or the repair of a computer system.

  • Resources (4)

    Computers use resources to perform tasks, such as utilizing memory space, or CPU time.

  • Restore (8)

    Restoring a Computer''s System to a previous state when it was functioning normally, or restoring data that has been lost

  • Rootkit (4)

    A Rootkit is a program designed to take fundamental control of a computer system, without authorization by the computer owner. Its intended to seize control of the operating system running on the hardware. Typically Rootkits hide themselfs under the Operating System as one would plant a monitoring device under the engine of a car. Root kits are especially hard to detect as they appear to run outside of the normal operation of the computer. Techniques used to accomplish this can include concealing running processes from monitoring programs, or hiding files or system data from the operating system.

  • Router (3)

    A Router is a device that passes information from one network too another such as the internet. When you have two or more computers connected to each other, that creates a network in and of itself. When two or more Computers connect too the internet those computers are passing data from your (LAN) Local Area Network onto the (WAN) Wide Area Network using a technology built into most routers and firewalls called NAT (Network Address Translation). NAT passes data destined for the WAN interface onto the internet and data destined for the LAN interface to local computers.

S

  • Setup (11)

    Computer Setup. Usually used for new computers when needing help unpacking, setup, and installing the new computer

  • Software (13)

    A program created using a computer language to perform a specific task on a computer.

  • Sound Recording

    Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a small microphone diaphragm that can detect changes in atmospheric pressure (acoustic sound waves) and record them as a graphic representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph (in which a stylus senses grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Electronically generated sound waves may also be recorded directly from devices such as an electric guitar pickup or a synthesizer, without the use of acoustics in the recording process other than the need for musicians to hear how well they are playing during recording sessions.

  • Spoofing (1)

    In the context of computer security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.cryptography is the man-in-the-middle attack, in which an attacker spoofs Alice into believing they''re Bob, and spoofs Bob into believing they''re Alice, thus gaining access to all messages in both directions without the trouble of any cryptanalytic effort.The attacker must monitor the packets sent from Alice to Bob and then guess the sequence number of the packets. Then the attacker knocks out Alice with a SYN attack and injects his own packets, claiming to have the address of Alice. Alice''s firewall can defend against some spoof attacks when it has been configured with knowledge of all the IP addresses connected to each of its interfaces. It can then detect a spoofed packet if it arrives at an interface that is not known to be connected to the IP address.Many carelessly designed protocols are su

  • Spyware (4)

    Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the user''s interaction with the computer, without the user''s informed consent.While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the user''s behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habit, sites that have been visited, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, redirecting Web browser activity, accessing websites blindly that will cause more harmful viruses, or diverting advertising revenue to a third party. Spyware can even change computer settings, resulting in slow connection speeds, different home pages, and loss of Internet or other programs. In an attempt to increase the understanding of spyware, a more formal classification of its included software types is cap

  • Storage Device (5)

    A electonic device that stores data, such as a Hard Disk Drive or CD/DVD ROM Drive.

  • System (12)

    A Computer functions as a system of components consisting of hardware and software.

  • System Partition (1)

    A container that stores the system files that the operating system needs to function.

T

  • Telecommunications (2)

    Telecommunication is the transmission of messages over significant distances for the purpose of communication.

  • Timeout (1)

    In data communications a timeout can be concidered:
    A specific period of time that will be allowed to elapse before a specific event is to take place.
    For internet connections that are taking to long to complete, timeout mesures are in place to prevent that connection from taking up to many resources on the receiving end of the connection.

  • Trojan (5)

    In the context of computing and software, a Trojan horse, or simply trojan, is a piece of software which appears to perform a certain action but in fact performs another such as transmitting a computer virus. Contrary to popular belief, this action, usually encoded in a hidden payload, may or may not be actually malicious, but Trojan horses are notorious today for their use in the installation of backdoor programs. Simply put, a Trojan horse is not a computer virus. Unlike such malware, it does not propagate by self-replication but relies heavily on the exploitation of an end-user (see Social engineering). It is instead a categorical attribute which can encompass many different forms of codes. Therefore, a computer worm or virus may be a Trojan horse. The term is derived from the classical story of the Trojan Horse.

  • Troubleshooting (6)

    Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving most often applied to repair of failed products or processes. It is a logical, systematic search for the source of a problem so that it can be solved, and so the product or process can be made operational again. Troubleshooting is needed to develop and maintain complex systems where the symptoms of a problem can have many possible causes. Troubleshooting is used in many fields such as engineering, system administration, electronics, automotive repair, and diagnostic medicine. Troubleshooting requires identification of the malfunction(s) or symptoms within a system. Then, experience is commonly used to generate possible causes of the symptoms. Determining which cause is most likely is often a process of elimination - eliminating potential causes of a problem. Finally, troubleshooting requires confirmation that the solution restores the product or process to its working state.

U

  • UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

    A UPS (You-Pee-Ess) or Uninterruptible Power Supply is a Battery backup and surge protection for computer systems, home networking, external storage, gaming, home servers and other electronics. It protects equipment from damage by preventing electrical damage and unintended power outages though voltage regulation and by restoring power from battery backup immediately after power loss from the grid. The battery backup power is usually short lived, giving the user enough time to shut the equipment down, or allowing the device itself to automatically shut sensitive equipment down in the battery operated time interval.

  • Unstable (8)

    A computer''s hardware or software is not functioning correctly all of the time.

  • Upgrades (6)

    Add to a new computer, in addition to what is already installed. Such as a memory upgrade, or a faster CPU.

  • uptodate (3)

    up-to-date
    A term used to keep your computer updated with the latest operating system patches and security updates. Visit http://update.microsoft.com

V

  • VOIP (1)

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VOIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.

  • Video Production

    Professional video production, or videography, is the art and service of videotaping, editing, and distributing a finished video product. This can include television production, commercial video production, and corporate and event videos.

  • Video editing

    Video editing is the process of editing segments of motion video footage, special effects and sound recordings. Motion picture film editing is a predecessor to video editing and, in several ways, video editing simulates motion picture film editing, in theory and the use of non-linear and linear editing systems. Using video or film, a director can communicate non-fictional and fictional events. The goals of editing is to manipulate these events for better or for worse communication. It is a visual art.

  • Virus (5)

    An infection of a Computer System though malicious computer code.

  • Virus/Malware Motivations

    Motivation for these kinds of attacks vary from annoying pranks to prove to the attacker or his/hers peers that it can be done. Attackers with political motivations might attack computers and use those computers to attack a political target like the government or a large corporation. Most of the time attackers use malware infected machines to bring down the technologies of wealth corporations for monetary gain.

W

  • WAN

    Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries []). Or, less formally, a network that uses routers and public communications links []. Contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.

  • Web Page

    A web page or webpage is a document or resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device.

  • Website (1)

    A website or (Web Site) is a group of digitally rendered content pages that are displayed on a computer screen using a web browser and a internet/network connection.

  • Wireless (3)

    The term wireless is normally used to refer to any type of electrical or electronic operation which is accomplished without the use of a "hard wired" connection. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear the term is often simply shortened to "wireless". Wireless communications is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.

  • Wordpress

    WordPress is a state-of-the-art website publishing platform with a focus on aesthetics, web standards, and usability. WordPress is both free and priceless at the same time. Your Web-Site desiner might use Wordpress to create a site for you that is easy to use and navigate. If you have questions about setting up your own website using Wordpress Please contact me for more information.

  • Worm (4)

    A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computer terminals on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause harm to the network, if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.



Dr. Radut